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Τετάρτη, 26 Φεβρουαρίου 2020

Ερμηνευτικό λεξικό ειδικών όρων από την Αγγλική στην Αγγλική

Accordion reed steelHardened, tempered, polished and blued or yellow flat steel with dressed edges. Carbon content about 1.00%. Material has to possess good flatness, uniform hardness and high elasticity.Acid brittlenessBrittleness resulting from pickling steel in acid; hydrogen, formed by the interaction between iron and acid, is partially absorbed by the metal, causing acid brittleness.Acid processA process of making steel, either Bessemer, open-hearth or electric, in which the furnace is lined with a siliceous refractory and for which low phosphorous pig iron is required as this element is not removed.Acid steelThe term has no reference to the acidity of the steel. (See Acid Process.)Age hardeningThe term as applied to soft or low carbon steels, relates to slow, gradual changes that take place in properties of steels after the final treatment. These changes, which bring about a condition of increased hardness, elastic limit, and tensile strength with a consequent loss in ductility, occur during the period in which the steel is at normal temperatures.AgingSpontaneous change in the physical properties of some metals, which occurs on standing, at atmospheric temperatures after final cold working or after a final heat treatment. Frequently synonymous with the term “Age-Hardening.”Air coolingCooling of the heated metal, intermediate in rapidity between slow furnace cooling and quenching, in which the metal is permitted to stand in the open air.Air hardening steelAlloy steel which may be hardened by cooling in air from a temperature above the transformation range. Such steels attain their martensitic structure without going through the quenching process. Additions of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and manganese are effective toward this end.Aisi steelsSteels of the American Iron and Steel Institute. Common and alloy steels have been numbered in a system essentially the same as the SAE. The AISI system is more elaborate than the SAE in that all numbers are preceded by letters: “A” represents basic open-hearth alloy steel, “B” acid Bessemer carbon steel, “C” basic open-hearth carbon steel, “CB” either acid Bessemer or basic open-hearth carbon steel, “E” electric furnace alloy steel.AlcladThe common name for a type of clad wrought aluminum products, such as sheet and wire, with coatings of high-purity aluminum or an aluminum alloy different from the core alloy in composition. The coatings are anodic to the core so they protect exposed areas on the core electrolytically during exposure to corrosive environments.Allotropy(See Polymorphism)Alloy(Met.) Metal prepared by adding other metals or non-metals to a basic metal to secure desirable properties.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY1 / 44 Alloy steelSteel containing substantial quantities of elements other than carbon and the commonly-accepted limited amounts of manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorous. Addition of such alloying elements is usually for the purpose of increased hardness, strength or chemical resistance. The metals most commonly used for forming alloy steels are: nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese, tungsten, molybdenum and vanadium. “Low Alloy” steels are usually considered to be those containing a total of less than 5% of such added constituents.Alpha brassA copper-zinc alloy containing up to 38% of zinc. Used mainly for cold working.Alpha bronzeA copper-tin alloy consisting of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Commercial forms contain 4 or 5% of tin. This alloy is used in coinage, springs, turbine, blades, etc.Alpha ironThe polymorphic form of iron, stable below 1670°F. has a body centered cubic lattice, and is magnetic up to 1410° F.Aluminum(Chemical symbol Al) Element No. 13 of the periodic system;. Atomic weight 26.97; silvery white metal of valence 3; melting point 1220°F.; boiling point approximately 4118°F.; ductile and malleable; stable against normal atmospheric corrosion, but attacked by both acids and alkalis. Aluminum is used extensively in articles requiring lightness, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, etc. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making are; (1) Deoxidizes efficiently (See Aluminum Killed Steel) (2) Restricts grain growth (by forming dispersed oxides or nitrides) (3) Alloying element in nitriding steel.Aluminum killed steelA steel where aluminum has been used as a deoxidizing agent. (See Killed Steel.)AmorphousNon-crystalline.AnnealingA heating and cooling operation implying usually a relatively slow cooling. Annealing is a comprehensive term. The process of such a heat treatment may be: to remove stresses; to induce softness; to alter ductility; toughness; electrical magnetic, or other physical properties; to refine the crystalline structure; to remove gases; to produce a definite micro-structure. In annealing, the temperature of the operation and the rate of cooling depend upon the material being heat treated and the purpose of the treatment.Anodizing (aluminum anodic oxide coating)A process of coating aluminum by anodic treatment resulting in a thin film of aluminum oxide of extreme hardness. A wide variety of dye colored coatings are possible by impregnation in process.Artificial agingAn aging treatment above room temperature. (See Precipitation Heat Treatment and compare with Natural Aging)A.S.T.M.Abbreviation for American Society for Testing Material. An organization for issuing standard specifications on materials, including metals and alloys.AustemperingA trade name for a patented heat treating process that consists of quenching a ferrous alloy from temperature above the transformation ranges, in a medium having a rate of heat abstraction sufficiently high to prevent the formation of hightemperature transformation products and in maintaining the alloy, until transformation is complete, at a temperature below that of pearlite formations and above that of martensite formation.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY2 / 44 AustenitePhase in certain steels, characterized as a solid solution, usually off carbon or iron carbide, in the gamma form of iron. Such steels are known as “austenitic”. Austenite is stable only above 1333°F. in a plain carbon steel, but the presence of certain alloying elements, such as nickel and manganese, stabilizes the austenitic form, even at normal temperatures.Austenitic steelSteel which, because of the presence of alloying elements, such as manganese, nickel, chromium, etc., shows stability of Austenite at normal temperatures.BainiteA slender, needle-like (acicular) microstructure appearing in spring steel strip characterized by toughness and greater ductility than tempered Martensite. Bainite is a decomposition product of Austenite best developed at interrupted holding temperatures below those forming fine pearlite and above those giving Martensite.Banded structureAppearance of a metal, under a microscope or viewed by the naked eye, on fractured or smoothed surfaces, with or without etching, showing parallel bands in the direction of rolling or working.Band saw steel (wood)A hardened tempered bright polished high carbon cold rolled spring steel strip produced especially for use in the manufacture of band saws for sawing wood, non ferrous metals, and plastics. Usually carries some nickel and with a Rockwell value of approximately C40/45.BarkSurface of metal, under the oxide-scale layer, resulting from heating in an oxidizing environment. In the case of steel, such bark always suffers from decarburization.Base box(See Tin Plate Base Box)Basic open hearth(See Open Hearth Process)Basic oxygen processA steel making process wherein oxygen of the highest purity is blown onto the surface of a bath of molten iron contained in a basic lined and ladle shaped vessel. The melting cycle duration is extremely short with quality comparable to Open Hearth Steel.Basic processA steel making process either Bessemer, open hearth or electric, in which the furnace is lined with a basic refractory. A slag, rich in lime, being formed and phosphorous removed.Basic steel(See Basic Process)Bath annealingImmersion in a liquid bath (such as molten lead or fused salts) held at an assigned temperature. When a lead bath is used, the process is known as lead annealing.BauxiteThe only commercial ore of aluminum, corresponding essentially to the formula Al2O3xH2O.BeadingRaising a ridge on sheet metal.Bend testVarious tests used to determine the toughness and ductility of flat rolled metal sheet, strip or plate, in which the material is bent around its axis or around an outside radius. A complete test might specify such a bend to be both with and against the direction of grain. For testing, samples should be edge filed to remove burrs and any edgewise cracks resulting from slitting or shearing. If a vice is to be used then line the jaws with some soft metal or brass, so as to permit a free flow of the metal in the sample being tested.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY3 / 44 Beryllium copperAn alloy of copper and 2-3% beryllium with optionally fractional percentages of nickel or cobalt. Alloys of this series show remarkable age-hardening properties and an ultimate hardness of about 400 Brinell (Rockwell C43). Because of such hardness and good electrical conductivity, beryllium-copper is used in electrical switches, springs, etc.Bessemer processA steel making process in which air is blown through the molten iron so that the impurities are thus removed by oxidation.Billet(See Bloom)Binary alloyAn alloy containing two elements, apart from minor impurities, as brass containing the two elements copper and zinc.Black annealingA process of box annealing or pot annealing ferrous alloy sheet, strip or wire after hot working and pickling. (See Box Annealing)Black oil tempered spring steel strip(Scaleless Blue.) A flat cold rolled usually .70/.80% medium high carbon spring steel strip, blue-black in color, which has been quenched in oil and drawn to desired hardness. While it looks and acts much like blue tempered spring steel and carries a Rockwell hardness of C44/47, it has not been polished and is lower in carbon content. Used for less exacting requirements than clock spring steel, such as snaps, lock springs, hold down springs, trap springs, etc. It will take a more severe bend before fracture than will clock spring, but it does not have the same degree of spring-back.Black plateA light weight or a thin uncoated steel sheet or strip so called because of its dark oxide coloring prior to pickling. It is manufactured by two different processes. (1) From sheet bar on single stand sheet mills or sheer mills in tandem. This method is now almost obsolete. (2) On modern, high speed continuous tandem cold reduction mills from coiled hot rolled pickled wide strip into ribbon wound coils to finished gage. Sizes range from 12” to 32” in width, and in thicknesses from 55 lbs. to 275 lbs. base box weight. It is used either as is for stampings, or may be enameled or painted or tin or terne coated.Blast furnaceA vertical shaft type smelting furnace in which an air blast is used, usually hot, for producing pig iron . The furnace is continuous in operation using iron ore, coke, and limestone as raw materials which are charged at the top while the molten iron and slag are collected at the bottom and are tapped out at intervals.Blast box(See Tin Plate Base Box)BlisterA defect in metal produced by gas bubbles either on the surface or formed beneath the surface while the metal is hot or plastic. Very fine blisters are called “pin-head” or “pepper” blisters.Bloom(Slab, Billet, Sheet-Bar.) Semifinished products, hot rolled from ingots. The chief differences are in their cross sectional areas in ratio of width to thickness, and in their intended use.Blooming millA mill used to reduce ingots to blooms, billets, slabs, sheet-bar etc. (See Semi-Finished Steel)BlowholeA cavity produced during the solidification of metal by evolved gas, which in failing to escape is held in pockets.Blue annealingA process of softening ferrous alloys in the form of hot rolled sheet, by heating in the open furnace to a temperature within the transformation range and then cooling in air. The formation of bluish oxide on the surface is incidental.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY4 / 44 Blue brittlenessReduced ductility occurring as a result of strain aging, when certain ferrous alloys are worked between 300° and 700°F. This phenomenon may be observed at the working temperature or subsequently at lower temperatures.Blue tempered spring steel strips(See Tempered Spring Steel Strip)Bluing(1) Sheets - A method of coating sheets with a thin, even film of bluish-black oxide, obtained by exposure to an atmosphere of dry steam or air, at a temperature of about 1000°F, generally this is done during box-annealing. (2) Bluing of tempered spring steel strip; an oxide film blue in color produced by low temperature heating.Body centered(Concerning space lattices.) Having the equivalent lattice points at the corners of the unit cell, and at its center; sometimes called centered or space-centered.BonderizingThe coating of steel with a film composed largely of zinc phosphate in order to develop better bonding surface for paint or lacquer.Boron(Chemical Symbol B)- Element No. 5 of the periodic system. Atomic weight 10.82. It is gray in color, ignites at about 1112°F. and burns with a brilliant green flame, but its melting point in a non-oxidizing atmosphere is about 4000°F. Boron is used in steel in minute quantities for one purpose only - to increase the hardenability as in case hardening and to increase strength and hardness penetration.Bottle top moldIngot mold, with the top constricted; used in the manufacture of “capped steel,” the metal in the constriction being covered with a cap fitted into the bottleneck, which stops “rimming” action by trapping escaping gases.Bow(See Camber)Box annealingA process of annealing a ferrous alloy in a suitable closed metal container, with or without packing materials, in order to minimize oxidation. The charge is usually heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range, but sometimes above or within it, and is then cooled slowly. This process is also called “close annealing” or “pot annealing.” (See Black Annealing)BrakeA piece of equipment used for bending sheet: also called a “bar folder.” If operated manually, it is called a “hand brake”; if power driven, it is called a “press brake.”BraleA diamond penetrator, conical in shape, used with a Rockwell hardness tester for hard metals.Brass (cartridge)Strip. 70% copper 30% zinc. This is one of the most widely used of the copper-zinc alloys; it is malleable and ductile; has excellent cold-working; poor hot working and poor machining properties; develops high tensile strength with cold-working. Temper is impaired by cold rolling and classified in hardness by the number of B & S Gages of rolling (reduction in thickness) from the previous annealing gage. Rated excellent for soft-soldering; good for silver alloy brazing or oxyacetylene welding and fair for resistance of carbon arc welding. Used for drawn cartridges, tubes, eyelet machine items, snap fasteners, etc.Brass shim(See SHIM)STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY5 / 44 Brass (yellow)Strip. 65% copper and 35% zinc. Known as “High Brass” or “Two to One Brass.” A copper-zinc alloy yellow in color. Formerly widely used but now largely supplanted by Cartridge Brass.BrassesCopper base alloys in which zinc is the principal added element. Brass is harder and stronger than either of its alloying elements copper or zinc; it is malleable and ductile; develops high tensile with cold-working and not heat treatable for purposes of hardness development.BrazingJoining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 800°F. but lower than those of the metals being joined. This may be accomplished by means of a torch (torch brazing), in a furnace (furnace brazing) or by dipping in a molten flux bath (dip or flux brazing). The filler metal is ordinarily in rod form in torch brazing; whereas in furnace and dip brazing the work material is first assembled and the filler metal may then be applied as wire, washers, clips, bands, or may be integrally bonded, as in brazing sheet.Break test(For tempered steel) A method of testing hardened and tempered high carbon spring steel strip wherein the specimen is held and bent across the grain in a vice-like calibrated testing machine. Pressure is applied until the metal fractures at which point a reading is taken and compared with a standard chart of brake limitations for various thickness range. (See Bend Test)BridlingThe cold working of dead soft annealed strip metal immediately prior to a forming, bending, or drawing operation. A process designed to prevent the formulation of Luder’s lines. Caution: Bridled metal should be used promptly and not permitted to (of itself) return to its pre-bridled condition.Bright annealed wireSteel wire bright drawn and annealed in controlled non-oxidizing atmosphere furnace.Bright annealingA process of annealing usually carried out in a controlled furnace atmosphere so that surface oxidation is reduced to a minimum and the surface remains relatively bright.Bright basic wireBright steel wire, slightly softer than Bright Bessemer Wire. Used for round head wood screws, bolts and rivets, electric welded chain, etc.Bright bessemer wireStiff bright steel wire of hard drawn temper. Normally drawn to size without annealing. Used for nails, flat head wood screws, cheap springs, etc.Bright commercial finish(See Finishes)Bright dipAn acid solution into which articles are dipped to obtain a clean, bright surface.Brinell hardness (test)A common standard method of measuring the hardness of certain metals. The smooth surface of the metal is subjected to indentation by a hardened steel ball under pressure or load. The diameter of the resultant indentation, in the metal surface, is measured by a special microscope and the Brinell hardness value read from a chart or calculated formula.BrittlenessA tendency to fracture without appreciable deformation.BroachingMultiple shaving, accomplished by pushing a tool with stepped cutting edges along the work, particularly through holes.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY6 / 44 BronzePrimarily an alloy of copper and tin but the name is now applied to other alloys not containing tin; e.g., aluminum, bronze, manganese bronze, and beryllium bronze. For varieties and uses of tin bronze see (Alpha Bronze and Phosphor Bronze).Brown & Sharpe gages (B & S)A standard series of sizes arbitrarily indicated, as by numbers, to which the diameter of wire or thickness of sheet metal is usually made and which is used in the manufacture of brass, bronze, copper, copper-base alloys and aluminum. These gage numbers have a definite relationship to each other. By this system the decimal thickness is reduced by 50% every six gage numbers while temper is expressed by the number of B S gage numbers as cold reduced in thickness from previous annealing. For each B & S gage number in thickness reduction, there is assigned a hardness value of Ό hard. To illustrate: One number hard = Ό hard, two numbers hard = ½ hard, etc.BuckleAlternate bulges or hollows recurring along the length of the product with the edges remaining relatively flat.BurningHeating a metal beyond the temperature limits allowable for the desired heat treatment, or beyond the point where serious oxidation or other detrimental action begins.BurntA term applied to a metal permanently damaged by overheating.BurrA thin ridge or roughness left by a cutting operation such as in metal slitting, shearing, blanking or sawing. This is common to a No. 3 slit edge in the case of steel.Butcher saw steelA hardened, tempered, and bright polished high carbon spring steel strip (carbon content a bit higher than in wood band saw quality) with a Rockwell value of approximately C47/49.Butt weldingJoining two edges or ends by placing one against the other and welding them.CakeA copper ingot rectangular in cross section intended for rolling.Camber or bowEdgewise curvature. A lateral departure of a side edge of sheet or strip metal from a straight line.Camera shutter steelHardened, tempered and bright polished extra flat and extra precision rolled. Carbon content 1.25, Chromium .15.Capped steel(See Bottle Top Mold)CarbideA compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements.Carbon(Chemical symbol C) - Element No. 6 of the periodic system; atomic weight 12.01; has three allotropic modifications, all non-metallic. Carbon is preset in practically all ferrous alloys, and has tremendous effect on the properties of the resultant metal. Carbon is also an essential compound of the cemented carbides. Its metallurgical use, in the form of coke, for reduction of oxides, is very extensive.Carbon freeMetals and alloys which are practically free from carbon.Carbon rangeIn steel specifications, the carbon range is the difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable.Carbon steelCommon or ordinary steel as contrasted with special or alloy steels, which contain other alloying metals in addition to the usual constituents of steel in their common percentages.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY7 / 44 Carburizing(Cementation) Adding carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids, liquids or gasses. The oldest method of case hardening.Case hardeningCarburizing and subsequently hardening by suitable heattreatment, all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron-base alloy.Cast(1) A term indicating in the annealed state as “Cast Spring Steel Wire.” (2) In reference to Bright or Polished Strip Steel or Wire, the word cast implies discoloration as a shadow. (3) A term implying a lack of straightness as in a coil set.Cast steelAny object made by pouring molten steel into molds.CementiteA compound of iron and carbon known as “Iron Carbide,” which has the approximate chemical formula Fe3C containing 6.69% of carbon. Hard and brittle, it is the hard constituents of cast iron, and the normal form in which carbon is present in steel. It is magnetizable, but not as readily as ferrite.Charcoal tin plateTin Plate with a relatively heavy coating of tin (higher than the “Coke Tin Plate” grades).Chatter marks(Defect) - Parallel indentations or marks appearing at right angles to edge of strip forming a pattern at close and regular intervals, caused by roll vibrations.ChippingA method for removing seams and surface defects with chisel or gouge so that such defects will not be working into the finished product. Chipping is often employed to remove metal that is excessive but not defective. Removal of defects by gas cutting is known as “deseaming” or “scarfing.”Chromium(Chemical symbol Cr.) - Element No. 24 of the periodic system; atomic weight 52.01. It is of bright silvery color, relatively hard. It is strongly resistant to atmospheric and other oxidation. It is of great value in the manufacture of Stainless Steel as an iron-base alloy. Chromium plating has also become a large outlet for the metal. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making; (1) increases resistance to corrosion and oxidation (2) increases hardenability (3) adds some strength at high temperatures (4) resists abrasions and wear (with high carbon).Chromium-nickel steelSteel usually made by the electric furnace process in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements. The stainless steel of 18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better known of the chromium-nickel types.Cigarette knife steelHardened, tempered and bright polished. 1.25 Carbon content Chromium .15. Accurate flatness necessary and a high hardness with Rockwell C 51 to 53. Usually sizes are 4 Ύ” wide and 6” wide x .004 to .010.CladdingA process for covering one metal with another. Usually the surfaces of fairly thick slabs of two metals are brought carefully into contact and are then subjected to co-rolling so that a clad composition results. In some instances a thick electroplate may be deposited before rolling.Clad metalA composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together. The bonding may have been accomplished by corolling, welding, heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY8 / 44 Cluster millA rolling mill where each of the two working rolls of small diameter is supported by two or more back-up rolls.Cobalt(Chemical symbol Co.) Element No. 27 of the periodic system; atomic weight 58.94. A gray magnetic metal of medium hardness; it resists corrosion like nickel, which it resembles closely; melting point 2696°F.; boiling point about 5250°F.; specific gravity 8.9. It is used as the matrix metal in most cemented carbides and is occasionally electroplated instead of nickel, the sulfate being used as electrolyte. Its principal function as an alloy in tool steel; it contributes to red hardness by hardening ferrite.Coil set or longitudinal curlA lengthwise curve or set found in coiled strip metals following its coil pattern. A departure from longitudinal flatness. It can be removed by roller or stretcher leveling from metals in the softer temper ranges.CoilsCoiled flat sheet or strip metal - usually in one continuous piece or length.CoiningA process of impressing images or characters of the die and punch onto a plane metal surface.Coke plate(Hot Dipped Tin Plate) Standard tin plate, with the lightest commercial tin coat, used for food containers, oil canning, etc. A higher grade is the best cokes, with special cokes representing the best of the coke tin variety. For high qualities and heavier coatings, see (Charcoal Tin Plate).Coil breaksCreases or Ridges appearing in sheets as parallel lines transverse to the direction of rolling and generally extending across the width of the sheet.Coil weldA joint between two lengths of metal within a coil - which is not always visible in the cold reduced product.Cold reduced stripMetal strip, made from hot-rolled strip, by rolling on cold-reduction mills.Cold reductionReduction of metal size, usually by rolling or drawing particularly thickness, while the metal is maintained at room temperature or below the recrystallization temperature of the metal.Cold rolled finishFinish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled sheet or strip with a lubricant resulting in a relatively smooth appearance.Cold rollingRolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of the metal to create strain hardening (work-hardening). Same as cold reduction, except that the working method is limited to rolling. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness, strength, stiffness, ductility and other characteristics known as tempers.Cold shortThe characteristics of metals that are brittle at ordinary or low temperatures.Cold shutA defect produced during casting, causing an area in the metal where two portions of the metal in either a molten or plastic condition have come together but have failed to unite, fuse, or, blend into a solid mass. (See Lamination)Cold workingPlastic deformation, such as rolling, hammering, drawing, etc., at a temperature sufficiently low to create strain hardening (workhardening). Commonly, the term refers to such deformation at normal temperatures.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY9 / 44 Columbium(Chemical Symbol Cb) - Element No. 41 of the periodic system. Atomic weight 92.91. It is steel gray in color and brilliant luster. Specific gravity 8.57. Melting point at about 4379°F. It is used mainly in the production of stabilized austenitic chromium-nickel steels, also to reduce the air-hardening characteristics in plain chromium steels of the corrosion resistant type.Commercial bronzeA copper-zinc alloy (brass) containing 90% copper and 10% zinc; used for screws, wire, hardware, etc. Although termed “commercial-bronze” it contains no tin. It is somewhat stronger than copper and has equal or better ductility.Commercial finish(See Finishes)Commercial quality steel sheetNormally to a ladle analysis of carbon limited at 0.15 max. A Standard Quality Carbon Steel Sheet.Continuous castingA casting technique in which the ingot is continuously solidified while it is being poured, and the length is not determined by mold dimensions.Continuous furnaceFurnace, in which the material being heated moves steadily through the furnace.Continuous picklingPassing sheet or strip metal continuously through a series of pickling and washing tanks.Continuous strip millA series of synchronized rolling mill stands in which coiled flat rolled metal entering the first pass (or stand) moves in a straight line and is continuously reduced in thickness (not width) at each subsequent pass. The finished strip is recoiled upon leaving the final or finishing pass.Controlled atmosphere furnacesA furnace used for bright annealing into which specially prepared gases are introduced for the purposes of maintaining a neutral atmosphere so that no oxidizing reaction between metal and atmosphere takes place.ConverterA furnace in which air is blown through the molten bath of crude metal or matte for the purpose of oxidizing impurities.Cooling stressesStresses develop by uneven contraction or external constraint of metal during cooling; also those stresses resulting from localized plastic deformation during cooling and retained.Copper(Chemical symbol Cu) - Element No. 29 of the periodic system, atomic weight 63.57. A characteristically reddish metal of bright luster, highly malleable and ductile and having high electrical and heat conductivity; melting point 1981°F.; boiling point 4237°F.; specific gravity 8.94. Universally used in the pure state as sheet, tube, rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements (See Brass and Bronze), as an alloy with other metals.Core wound flat wire(See Oscillated Wound Coils)CorrosionGradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents.Corrosion embrittlementThe embrittlement caused in certain alloys by exposure to a corrosive environment. Such material is usually susceptible to the intergranular type of corrosion attack.CorrugatedAs a defect. Alternate ridges and furrows. A series of deep short waves.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY10 / 44 CreepThe flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. The effect is particularly important if the temperature of stressing is above the recrystallization temperature of the metal.Critical pointsTemperatures at which internal changes or transformations take place within a metal either on a rising or falling temperature.Critical rangeA temperature range in which an internal change takes place within a metal. Also termed Transformation Range.CropThe defective ends of a rolled or forged product which are cut off and discarded.Cross break(See Luders Lines) This term also applies to transverse ribs or ripples.Cross direction(In rolled or drawn metal) The direction parallel to the axis of the rolls during rolling. The direction at, right angles to the direction of rolling or drawing.Cross rollingRolling at an angle to the long dimension of the metal; usually done to increase width.Crown or heavy centerIncreased thickness in the center of metal sheet or strip as compared with thickness at the edge.CrucibleA ceramic pot or receptacle made of graphite and clay, or other refractory materials, and used in the melting of metal. The term is sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron, cast steel or wrought steel.Crystal(1) A physically homogeneous solid, in which the atoms , ions, or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional repetitive pattern. (2) A coherent piece of matter, all parts of which have the same anisotropic arrangement of atoms; in metals, usually synonymous with “grain” and “crystallite.”CrystallineComposed of crystals.CrystallizationThe formation of crystals by the atoms assuming definite positions in a crystal lattice. This is what happens when a liquid metal solidifies. (Fatigue, the failure of metals under repeated stresses, is sometimes falsely attributed to crystallization.)Cube centeredMetallography - (Concerning space lattices) - Body-centered cubic. Refers to crystal structure.Cup fractureA type of fracture in a tensile test specimen which looks like a cup having the exterior portion extended with the interior slightly depressed.Cup test(See Olsen Ductility Test)CyanidingSurface hardening of an iron-base alloy article or portion of it by heating at a suitable temperature in contact with a cyanide salt, followed by quenching.Dead flatPerfectly flat. As pertaining to sheet, strip or plate. (See Stretcher Leveling)Dead soft annealingHeating metal to above the critical range and appropriately cooling to develop the greatest possible commercial softness or ductility.Dead soft steelSteel, normally made in the basic open-hearth furnace or by the basic oxygen process with carbon less than 0.10% and manganese in the 0.20-0.50% range, completely annealed.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY11 / 44 Dead soft temper(No. 5 TEMPER) - Condition of maximum softness commercially attainable in wire, strip, or sheet metal in the annealed state.DeburringA method whereby the raw slit edge of metal is removed by rolling or filing.DecarburizationRemoval of carbon from the outer surface of iron or steel, usually by heating in an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere. Water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide are strong decarburizers. Reheating with adhering scale is also strongly decarburizing in action.Deep drawingThe process of cold working or drawing sheet or strip metal blanks by means of dies on a press into shames which are usually more or less cup-like in character involving considerable plastic deformation of the metal. Deep-drawing quality sheet or strip steel, ordered or sold on the basis of suitability for deep-drawing.Degassing process(In steel making) - Removing gases from the molten metal by means of a vacuum process in combination with mechanical action.Delta ironAllotropic modification of iron, stable above 2552°F. to melting point. It is of body-centered cubic crystal structure.DeoxidizingRemoval of oxygen. In steel sheet, strip, and wire technology, the term refers to heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere, to lessen the amount of scale. (See Controlled Atmosphere Furnaces)Die linesLines of markings caused on drawn or extruded products by minor imperfections in the surface of the die.Die sinkingForming or machining a depressed pattern in a die.DishA concave surface departing from a straight line edge to edge. Indicates transverse or across the width.Doctor blade steel stripA hardened and tempered spring steel strip, usually blued, produced from approximately .85 carbon cold rolled spring steel strip specially selected for straightness and good edges. Sometimes hand straightened or straightened by grinding and cut to desired lengths. This product is used in the printing trade as a blade to uniformly remove excess ink (“dope”) from the rolls; hence its name.Drawing backReheated after hardening to a temperature below the critical for the purpose of changing the hardness of the steel. (See Tempering)Drill rodA term given to an annealed and polished high carbon tool steel rod usually round and centerless ground. The sizes range in round stock from .013 to 1 ½” diameter. Commercial qualities embrace water and oil hardening grades. A less popular but nevertheless standard grade is a non-deforming quality. Drill Rods are used principally by machinists and tool and die makers for punches, drills, taps, dowel pins, screw machine parts, small tools, etc.Dry rolled finishFinish obtained by cold rolling on polished rolls without the use of any coolant or metal lubricant, material previously plain pickled, giving a burnished appearance.DuctilityThe property of metals that enables them to be mechanically deformed when cold, without fracture. In steel, ductility is usually measured by elongation and reduction of area as determined in a tensile test.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY12 / 44 DuraluminThe trade name applied to the first aluminum-copper-magnesium type of age-hardenable alloy (17S), which contains nominally 4% Cu, ½ % Mg. The term is sometimes used to include the class of wrought aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys that harden during aging at room temperature.EaringWavy projections formed at the opera end of a cup or shell in the course of deep drawing because of differences in directional properties. Also termed scallop. (See Non-Scalloping Quality Strip Steel)EdgesMany types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal products. Over the years the following types of edges have become recognized as standard in their respective fields. COPPER BASE ALLOYS Slit, Slit and Edge Rolled, Sheared, Sawed, Machined or Drawn, SHEET STEELS OR ALUMINUM SHEET Mill Edge, Slit Edge or Sheared Edge. STRIP STEELS and STAINLESS STRIP No. 1 Edge - A smooth, uniform, round or square edge, either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified, width tolerance +/-.005”. No. 2 Edge - A natural round mill edge carried through from the hot rolled band. Has not been slit, filed, or edge rolled. Tolerances not closer than hot-rolled strip limits. No. 3 Edge - Square, produced by slitting only. Not filed. Width tolerance close. No. 4 Edge - A round edge produced by edge rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. Not as perfect as No. 1 edge. Width tolerances liberal. No. 5 Edge - An approximately square edge produced by slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr. No. 6 Edge - A square edge produced by square edge rolling, generally from square edge hot-rolled occasionally from slit strip. Width tolerances and finish not as exacting as No. 1 edge.Edge filingA method whereby the raw or slit edges of strip metal are passed or drawn one or more times against a series of files, mounted at various angles. This method may be used for deburring only or filing to a specific contour including a completely rounded edge.Edge strain or edge breaksCreases extending in from the edge of the temper rolled sheet.Edgewise curvature(See Camber)EdgingThe dressing of metal strip edges by rolling, filing or drawing.Elastic limitMaximum stress that a material will stand before permanent deformation occurs.Electric furnace steelSteel made in any furnace where heat is generated electrically, almost always by arc. Because of relatively high cost, only tool steels and other high-value steels are made by the electric furnace process.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY13 / 44 Electrocleaning(Electrolytic Brightening) - An anodic treatment. A cleaning, polishing, or oxidizing treatment in which the specimen or work is made the anode in a suitable electrolyte; an inert metal is used as cathode and a potential is applied.Electro-galvanizingGalvanizing by electrodeposition of zinc on steel.Electrolytic polishing(See Electrocleaning)Electrolytic tin plateBlack Plate that has been tin plated on both sides with commercially pure tin by electrodeposition. (See Tin Plating)ElectroplatingThe production of a thin coating of one metal on another by electrodeposition. It is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge its useful functions. Various plated metals and combinations thereof are being used for different purpose to illustrate: 1. Decoration and protection against corrosion ………… copper, nickel and chromium. 2. Protection against corrosion ……… cadmium or zinc 3. Protection against wear ……………… chromium 4. Build-up of a part or parts undersize …… chromium or nickel 5. Plate for rubber adhesion ………………… brass 6. Protection against carburization and for brazing operations…...copper and nickelElongationIncrease in length which occurs before a metal is fractured, when subjected to stress. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length and is a measure of the ductility of the metal.EmbossingRaising or indenting a design in relief on a sheet or strip of metal by passing between rolls of desired pattern. (See Patterned or Embossed Sheet)Endurance limitMaximum alternating stress, which a given material will withstand for an indefinite number of times, without causing fatigue failure.Erichsen testSimilar to the Olsen Test. Readings are in millimeters.EtchingIn metallography, the process of revealing structural details by the preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface.Eutectoid steelSteel representing the eutectoid composition of the iron carbon system, with about 0.80% to 0.83% carbon, the eutectoid temperature being about 1333°F. Such steel in the annealed condition consists exclusively of pearlite. Steels with less than this quota of carbon are known as hypo-eutectoid and contain free ferrite in addition to the pearlite. When more carbon is present, the steel is known as hyper-eutectoid and contains free cementite. The presence of certain elements, such as nickel or chromium, lowers the eutectoid carbon content.Expander steelHardened and tempered, blue polished. Carbon content about 1.00, Chromium .17. Used for the expanders in oil piston rings. Hardness 30 N 70 to 73. Range of sizes run for grooves 3/32” to Ό” wide with the steel approximately .003% less than the grooves and thickness from .012 to .020”.ExtensometerAn apparatus for indicating the deformation of metal while it is subjected to stress.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY14 / 44 Extensometer testThe measurement of deformation during stressing in the elastic range, permitting determination of elastic properties such as proportional limit, proof stress, yield strength by the offset method and so forth. Requires the use of special testing equipment and testing procedures such as the use of an extensometer or the plotting of a stress-strain diagram.Extra hard temperIn brass mill terminology, Extra Hard is six B & S numbers hard or 50.15% reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage.Extra spring temperIn brass mill terminology, Extra Spring is ten numbers hard or 68.55% reduction in thickness from the previous annealing or soft stage.ExtrusionShaping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die of appropriate shape.Face centered(Concerning cubic space lattices) - Having equivalent points at the corners of the unit cell and at the centers of its six faces. A facecentered cubic space lattice is characteristic of one of the closepacked arrangements of equal hard spheres.FatigueThe phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stress. Fatigue fractures are progressive beginning as minute cracks and grow under the action of fluctuating stress.Ferritic stainless steelHas a body centered cubic (BCC) structure. These alloys are the chromium stainless steels containing low carbon levels. They are hardenable primarily by cold working, although some will harden slightly by heat treating. Ferritic stainless steels work harden much slower than austentitic stainless steels.FerroalloyAn alloy of iron with a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium or vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel.Ferro-manganeseAn alloy of iron and manganese (80% manganese) used in making additions of manganese to steel or cast-iron.FerrousRelated to iron (derived from the Latin ferrum.) Ferrous alloys are, therefore, iron base alloys.Fiber or fibreDirection in which metals have been caused to flow, as by rolling, with microscopic evidence in the form of fibrous appearance in the direction of flow.Fiber stressUnit stress which exists at any given point in a structural element subjected to load; given as load per unit area.Filed edgesFinished edges, the final contours of which are produced by drawing the strip over a series of small steel files. This is the usual and accepted method of dressing the edges of annealed spring steel strip after slitting in cases where edgewise slitting cracks are objectionable or slitting burr is to be removed.Finished steelSteel that is ready for the market without further work or treatment. Blooms, billets, slabs, sheet bars and wire rods are termed “semifinished”.FinishesThe surface appearance of the various metals after final treatment such as rolling, etc. Over the years the following finishes have become recognized as standard in their respective fields. ALUMINUM SHEET (A) Commercially Bright.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY15 / 44 (B) Bright one side. (A) Bright both sides (D) Embossed Sheets (Produced by using embossed rolls.) BLACK PLATE (A) Dull finish without luster produced by use of roughened rolls. (B) Bright finish - a luster finish produced by use of rolls having a moderately smooth surface. COLD ROLLED STEEL SHEETS (A) Commercial Finish. A dull satin surface texture produced by roughened rolls. (B) Commercial Bright Finish. Bright in appearance with a texture between luster and a very fine matte finish. (C) Luster Finish. Produced by use of ground and polished rolls. (Note: This is not a number 3 finish.) COLD ROLLED STRIP STEELS No. 1 Finish - A dull finish produced without luster by rolling on roughened rolls. No. 2 Finish - A regular bright finish produced by rolling on moderately bright rolls. No. 3 Finish - Best Bright Finish. A lustrous or high gloss finish produced by rolling on highly polished rolls. Also referred to as “Mirror Finish”. COPPER BASE ALLOYS Acid Dipped - Dry rolled finished. Produced by dry cold rolling bichromate dipped alloy with polished rolls, resulting in a burnished appearance and retaining the color obtained by dipping (True Metal Color). Bright Dipped Finish - Finish resulting from an acid dip. Buffed or Polished Surface - A finish obtained by buffing, resulting in a high gloss or polished finish. Cold Rolled Finish - A relatively smooth finish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled strip with a lubricant. Dry Rolled Finish - A burnished finish resulting from dry cold rolling by use of polished rolls without any metal lubricant. Hot Rolled Finish - A dark relatively rough oxidized finish resulting from rolling the metal while hot. May subsequently be pickled or bright dipped but the rough surface remains. Stretched Brushed Finish (Satin Finish) Obtained by mechanically brushing with wire brushes or by buffing. FLAT WIRE No. 2 Finish - A regular bright finish. No. 3 Finish - Best Bright High Gloss finish produced by use of polished rolls. Or by special buffing - this is a negotiated finish. STAINLESS COLD ROLLED SHEET and STRIP Nos. 1, 2B & 2D.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY16 / 44 No. 1 Finish - C. R. Annealed and pickled appearance varies from dull gray matte finish to a fairly reflective surface. No. 2B Finish - Same as No.1 Finish followed by a final light cold rolled pass generally on highly polished rolls. No. 2D Finish - A dull cold rolled finish produced by cold rolling on dull rolls. STAINLESS C.R. SHEET - Polished Finishes No. 3 Finish - This is an intermediate polished finish. No. 4 Finish - Ground and Polished finish. No. 6 Finish - Ground, Polished and Tampico Brushed. No. 7 Finish - Ground and High Luster Polished. No. 8 Finish - Ground and Polished to Mirror Finish. TEMPERED and UNTEMPERED COLD ROLLED CARBON SPRING STEEL STRIP Classified by description as follows: (A) Black Oil Tempered. (B) Scaleless Tempered. (C) Bright Tempered. (D) Tempered and Polished. (E) Tempered, Polished and Colored (Blue or Straw). TIN PLATE (A) Bright Hot Dipped Finish. (B) Electro Matte Dull Finish. (C) Electro Bright Reflow Finish - produced by the in-the-line thermal treatment following electrodeposition.Finishing temperatureTemperature of final hot-working of a metal.Flame annealingA process of softening a metal by the application of heat from a high temperature flame.Flame hardeningA process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of a high-temperature flame, and then cooling as required.Flapper valve steelAn extremely flat, very smooth, very accurate to gage, polished, hardened and tempered spring steel produced from approximately 1.15% carbon. The name is derived from its common and principle usage.Flattening(See Roller and Stretcher Leveling)Flat latch needle steelSupplied cold rolled and annealed. Carbon content .85. Supplied both in coil and flat length. Used to make flat latch needles which are used in the manufacture of knitted goods.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY17 / 44 Flat wireA flat Cold Rolled, prepared edge section up to Ό” wide, rectangular in shape. Generally produced from hot rolled rods or specially prepared round wire by one or more cold rolling operations, primarily for the purpose of obtaining the size and section desired. May also be produced by slitting cold rolled flat metal to desired width followed by edge dressing.FlowlinesAlways visible to a greater or less degree when a longitudinal section has been subjected to Macro etching, indicating the direction of work or rolling.Flow stressThe shear stress required to cause plastic deformation of solid metals.FlutingKinking or breakage due to curving of metal strip on a radius so small, with relation to thickness, as to stretch the outer surface above its elastic limit. Not to be confused with the specific product, Fluted Tubes.FoilMetal in any width but no more than about 0.005” thick.FoldsDefects caused in metal by continued fabrication of overlapping surfaces.FractureSurface appearance of metals when broken.Fracture testNicking and breaking a bar by means of sudden impact, to enable macroscopic study of the fracture.Friction gouges or scratchesA series of relatively short surface scratches variable in form and severity. (See Galling)Full annealingUsed principally on iron and steel, means heating the metal to about 100°F. above the critical temperature range, followed by “soaking” at this point and slow cooling below the critical temperature.Full finish plateSteel sheet or strip reduced either hot or cold, cleaned, annealed, and then cold-rolled to a bright finish.Full hard temper(A) No. 1 Temper. In low carbon sheet or strip steel, stiff and springy, not suitable for bending in any direction. It is the hardest temper obtainable by hard cold rolling. (B) In Stainless Steel Strip, tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. For Chromium-Nickel grades Full Hard temper is 185,000 TS, 140,000 YS Min. Term also used in connection with copper base alloys and considered synonymous with Hard Temper.Gages(Metal) - Mfrs. standard numbering systems indicating decimal thickness or diameters.GallingThe damaging of one or both metallic surfaces by removal of particles from localized areas due to seizure curing sliding friction.GalvanizingCoating steel with zinc and tin (principally zinc) for rust proofing purposes. Formerly for the purpose of galvanizing, cut length steel sheets were passed singly through a bath of the molten metal. Today’s galvanizing processing method consists of uncoiling and passing the continuous length of successive coils either through a molten bath of the metal termed Hot Dipped Galvanizing or by continuously zinc coating the uncoiled sheet electrolytically - termed Electro-Galvanizing.Gamma ironThe form of iron stable between 1670°F., and characterized by a face-centered cubic crystal structure.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY18 / 44 Gilding metalA copper-zinc alloy containing 95% copper and 5% zinc. While similar to deoxidized copper in physical properties, it is somewhat stronger and very ductile. It has thermal and electrical conductivity slightly better than half that of electrolytic copper and corrosion resistance comparable to copper.GrainA solid polyhedral (or many sided crystal) consisting of groups of atoms bound together in a regular geometric pattern. In mill practice grains are usually studied only as they appear in one plane. (1) Direction of: Refers to grain fiber following the direction of rolling and parallel to edges of strip or sheets. (2) To bend across the grain is to bend at right angles to the direction of rolling. (3) To bend with the grain is to bend parallel to the direction of rolling. In steel, the ductility in the direction of rolling is almost twice that at right angles to the direction of rolling.Grain boundaryBounding surface between crystals. When alloys yield new phases (as in cooling), grain boundaries are the preferred location for the appearance of the new phase. Certain deteriorations, such as season cracking and caustic embrittlement, occur almost exclusively at grain boundaries.Grain growthAn increase in metallic crystal size as annealing temperature is raised; growth occurs by invasion of crystal areas by other crystals.GrainsIndividual crystals in metals.Grain sizeAverage diameter of grains in the metal under consideration, or alternatively, the number of grains per unit area. Since increase in grain size is paralleled by lower ductility and impact resistance, the question of general grain size is of great significance. The addition of certain metals affects grain size, for example vanadium and aluminum tend to give steel a fine grain. The ASTM has set up a grain size standard for steels, and the McQuaid-Ehn Test has been developed as a method of measurement.GranulatedA coarse grain or pebbly surface condition which becomes evident during drawing. (See Orange Peel)GranulationThe formation of grains immediately upon solidification.GraphitizingA heating and cooling process by which the combined carbon in cast iron or steel is transformed, wholly or partly, to graphitic or free carbon.Ground flat stockAnnealed and preground (to close tolerances) tool steel flats in standard sizes ready for tool room use. These are three common grades; water hardening, oil hardening and air hardening quality.GuideDevice for holding the metal in the proper position, during rolling, or slitting.Guide scratch(Defect) - Scratches or marks appearing parallel to edges of cold rolled strip caused by scale or other articles which have become imbedded in or have adhered to the rolling mill guide. Also applies to similar scratches appearing as a result of slitting.Half hard temper(A) No. 2 Temper. In low carbon cold-rolled strip steel, produced by cold rolling to a hardness next to but somewhat softer than full hard temper. (B) In brass Stainless Steel Strip, tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. For Chromium-Nickel grades Half-Hard Temper 150,000 TS., 110,000 YS. Min.Hard drawingDrawing metal wire through a die to reduce cross section and increase tensile strength.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY19 / 44 Hard drawnWire or tubing drawn to high tensile strength by a high degree of cold work.Hard drawn spring steel wireA medium high carbon cold drawn spring steel wire. Used principally for cold springs.HardenabilityThe Ability Of A Metal, Usually Steel, To Harden In Depth As Distinguished From The Terms “Hardness.”Hardened and tempered spring steel stripA medium or high carbon quality steel strip which has been subjected to the sequence of heating, quenching and tempering.HardeningAny Process Which Increases The Hardness Of A Metal. Usually Heating And Quenching Certain Iron Base Alloys From A Temperature Either Within Or Above The Critical Temperature Range.HardnessDegree To Which A Metal Will Resist Cutting, Abrasion, Penetration, Bending And Stretching. The Indicated Hardness Of Metals Will Differ Somewhat With The Specific Apparatus Measuring Hardness. (See Brinell Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Scleroscope Hardness) Tensile Strength Also Is An Indication Of Hardness.Hard temper(a) for steel see full hard temper. (b) in brass mill terminology. Hard temper is four b & s numbers hard or 37.1 % reduction.Heat of steelThe product of a single melting operation in a furnace, starting with the charging of raw materials and ending with the tapping of molten metal and consequently identical in its characteristics.Heat treatmentAltering the properties of a metal by subjecting it to a sequence of temperature changes, time of retention at specific temperature and rate of cooling therefore being as important as the temperature itself. Heat treatment usually markedly affects strength, hardness, ductility, malleability, and similar properties of both metals and their alloys.High brass65% - a copper-zinc alloy containing 35% zinc. Possesses high tensile strength and is used for springs, screws, rivets, etc.Hooke’s lawstress is proportional to strain in the elastic range. The value of the stress at which a material ceases to obey hooke’s law is known as the elastic limit.Hot dipIn steel mill practice, a process whereby ferrous alloy base metals are dipped into molten metal, usually zinc, tin or terne, for the purpose of fixing a rust resistant coating.Hot shortbrittleness in hot metal.Hot top(see sinkhead)Hot workingplastic deformation of metal at a temperature sufficiently high not to create strain hardening. The lower limit of temperature for this process is the recrystallization temperature.Hydrogen embrittlement(1) brittleness of metal, resulting from the occlusion of hydrogen (usually as a by-product of pickling or by co-deposition in electroplating). (2) a condition of low ductility resulting from hydrogen absorption and internal pressure developed subsequently. Electrolytic copper exhibits similar results when exposed to reducing atmosphere at elevated temperature.Hypereutectoid steelA steel having more than the eutectoid percentage of carbon. (see eutectoid steel)STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY20 / 44 Hypoeutectoid steelSteel with less than eutectoid percentage of carbon. (see eutectoid steel)Impact testTest designed to determine, the resistance of metal to breakage by impact, usually by concentrating the applied stress to a notched specimen.InclusionParticles Of Impurities (Usually Oxides, Sulfides, Silicates, Etc.) That Are Held Mechanically Or Are Formed During The Solidification Or By Subsequent Reaction Within The Solid Metal.Indentation hardnessThe resistance of a material to indentation. This is the usual type of hardness test, in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed into a surface under a substantially static load.Induction hardeningA process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of electrical induction, and then cooling as required.Induction heatingA process of heating by electrical induction.IngotA Casting For Subsequent Rolling Or Forging.InhibitorA Substance Which Retards Some Specific Chemical Reaction. Pickling Inhibitors Retard The Dissolution Of Metal Without Hindering The Removal Of Scale From Steel.InterleavingThe Placing Of A Sheet Of Paper Between Two Adjacent Layers Of Metal To Facilitate Handling And Shearing Of Rectangular Sheets, Or To Prevent Sticking Or Scratching.Intermediate annealingAn annealing treatment given to wrought metals following cold work hardening for the purpose of softness prior to further cold working. (see process annealing)Interrupted agingThe aging of an alloy at two or more temperatures by steps, and cooling to room temperatures after each step. Compare with progressive agingIron(Chemical Symbol Fe.) Element No. 26 Of The Periodic System; Atomic Weight 55.85. A Magnetic Silver-White Metal Of High Tensile Strength Ductile And Malleable. Melting Point Of Pure Iron About 2795°F. Chemically Iron Is Chiefly Base Forming. The Principal Forms Of Commercial Iron Are Steel, Cast Iron And Wrought Iron.IroningThinning The Walls Of Deep Drawn Articles By Reducing The Clearance Between Punch And Die.Isothermal annealingA process on which a ferrous alloy is heated to produce a structure partly or wholly austenitic, and is then cooled to and held at a temperature that causes transformation of the austenite to a relatively soft ferrite-carbide aggregate.Jig saw steelhardened, tempered and bright polished with round edges. Carbon content .85%. Range of sizes .039 to .393” in width and .016 to .039” in thickness.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY21 / 44 Killed steelThe term “killed” indicates that the steel has been sufficiently deoxidized to quiet the molten metal when poured into the ingot mold. The general practice is to use aluminum ferrosilicon or manganese as deoxidizing agents. A properly killed steel is more uniform as to analysis and is comparatively free from aging. However, for the same carbon and manganese content killed steel is harder than rimmed steel. In general all steels above 0.25% carbon are killed, also all forging grades, structural steels from 0.15% to 0.25% carbon and some special steels in the low carbon range. Most steels below 0.15% carbon are rimmed steel.Ladle analysisA term applied to the chemical analysis representative or in layers, as reported by the producer. Results are determined by analyzing a test ingot sample obtained during the pouring of the steel from a ladle.LaminationsA Defect Appearing In Sheets Or Strips As A Segregation Or In Layers. To Become Divided, Caused By Gas Pockets In The Ingot. (See Cold Shut)LapA Surface Defect Appearing As A Seam, Caused By Folding Over Hot Metal, Fins Or Sharp Corners And Then Rolling Or Forging Them Into The Surface But Not Welding Them.Lap-weldA term applied to a weld formed by lapping two pieces of metal and then pressing or hammering, and applied particularly to the longitudinal joint produced by a welding process for tubes or pipe, in which the edges of the skelp are beveled or scarfed so that when they are overlapped they can be welded together.LatticeSpace Lattice. Lattice Lines And Lattice Planes Are Lines And Planes Chosen So As To Pass Through Collinear Lattice Points, And Noncollinear Lattice Points, Respectively.Lead annealing(see bath annealing)LevelingFlattening Rolled Metal Sheet Or Strip. (See Roller And Stretcher Leveling)Light metalsMetals and alloys that have a low specific gravity, such as beryllium, magnesium and aluminum.Lithographic sheet aluminumSheet having a superior surface on one side with respect to freedom from surface imperfections and supplied with a maximum degree of flatness, for use as a plate in offset printing.Long terneA term applying to steel sheets that have been terne coated (lead and tin) by immersion in a bath of terne metal. (see terne plate)Low brass - 80% CuA copper-zinc alloy containing 20% zinc. Is a light golden color, very ductile, suitable for cupping, drawing, forming, etc. Because of its good strength and corrosion resistance it is used for flexible metal hoses, metal bellows, etc.Low carbon steelsContain from 0.10 to 0.30% carbon and less than 0.60% manganese. ( the product of basic oxygen, bessemer, open hearth or electric processes.)Luders lines(steel) - characteristic of no. 5 temper - not a defect in no. 5 dead soft temper. Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals, in the direction of the maximum shear stress, when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the yield point. Also called stretcher strains, similar occurrence in certain aluminum alloys, etc. (see stretcher strains)Luster finishRefer to finishes.STEEL AND METALLS GLOSSARY22 / 44 M B gradeA term applied to open-hearth steel wire in the .45/75 carbon range either hard drawn or oil tempered. Oil tempered wire of m b and w m b types are the most widely used of all spring wire. Oil tempered wire is more suitable to precision forming and casting operations than hard drawn wire because of close control of tensile strength and superior straightness. NOTE - M B, H B And Extra H B Designate Basic Open Hearth Steels, While W M B, W H B And Extra W H B Designate Acid Open Hearth Steels. The Chemical Composition And The Mechanical Properties Are The Same For Both Basic And Acid Steel.Macroetch testConsists of immersing a carefully prepared section of the steel in hot acid and of examining the etchin
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